Reducing Consumption, Emissions in Locomotives through EFI-Retrofit

April, 2017

HEINZMANN has successfully finished the conversion of a diesel-electric TEM-7 locomotive from conventional to electronic fuel injection control in Russia. For the first time in field use, the electronically actuated E-PPN Control Valve was used to supplement the mechanical fuel injection system of the Kolomna D49 combustion engine. By means of HEINZMANN's turnkey solution, fuel consumption of the locomotive was reduced by over 10 % and operating characteristics just like maintenance requirements improved.

ETM 64 3 Kolomna Lok 425pxA large number of diesel powered locomotives are still in use all over the world. The stock is set to remain extremely high in the future in many countries on non-electrified lines. Operating periods of 30 years and more are not unusual. And the age of the engines in field reflects this. Consumption and emission values do not even come close to meeting the current requirements. However, improvements may be achieved through retrofitting the diesel injection system with an electronic control in order to specify injection quantities and times precisely over the entire operating range. Significant consumption savings have been realized with this approach.

E-PPN control valve for exension of PLN injection systemsThe heart of the PLN extension kit is the electronically actuated E-PPN valve which provides new qualities to conventional mechanical fuel injection systems (PLN). Together with the high-performance MVC 01-20 controller, it optimises the combustion process in a map-controlled approach (EFI). Smooth engine running and reduced engine loads are achieved via balanced injection quantities across all cylinders.
A high proportion of idle running is typical for many locomotives. Locomotive engines are seldom switched off, meaning that the level of idle-running consumption can be high. This mode of operation is particularly prevalent with shunting locomotives. In idle state, the E-PPN system enables a significant speed reduction through cylinder balancing. This can be supplemented with cylinder switch-off, where half of the cylinders are shut down alternately.
The extended options afforded by the injection design result in combustion optimization and fuel savings over the entire operating range. This includes precise mapping of start of injection, injection quantity and injection quantity limitation. The black smoke formation is also reduced and the load acceptance behaviour improved. The level of the savings also depends heavily on the load profile of the locomotive. With a high part load share in particular, this results in significantly lower specific consumptions.

mechanical PLN injection system extended by E-PPN turnkey solutionConverting a conventional, plug-in pump based injection system to E-PPN requires no special effort. Modifications on the engine itself are not usually required. The electronically controlled injection valve can be adapted to practically any fuel injection pump using corresponding adapters. A large power range up to 350 kW per cylinder is covered. Due to the modified connection geometry, only the high-pressure pipe has to be adapted. The injector remains unchanged. The solution is suitable for a wide range of different engines thanks to the high system flexibility. E-PPN is particularly suited for the often limited space available in locomotives.
The modified system is controlled via the universal EFI control unit MVC 01-20, which, in addition to the injection control, also offers additional functions for engine monitoring. Sensors for speed, pressure and temperature recording round off the system. In addition, the PEGASOS traction control system can be integrated in order to guarantee optimal operation with diesel-electric drives.
The pump converted to the E-PPN system no longer has a quantity control function. It is set permanently to full delivery. The start of injection and injection quantity are only specified by the start and duration of the E-PPN valve. Quantities which are supplied by the pump but which are not needed are returned practically unpressurised to the tank.

This solution was used successfully for the first time on a KOLOMNA D49 diesel engine installed on a TEM-7 locomotive and has proven itself in continuous operation. HEINZMANN supplies tailored system solutions for converting a wide range of different engines and applications, including all required components. Installation, commissioning, tuning and aftersales service are included in the scope of service. The E-PPN concept offers major benefits with regard to fuel savings and emissions reduction, with comparatively low conversion costs.

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